Blog: XML parsing in Rust

Tobias Bieniek

Senior Software Engineer


Last week we spent some time researching the current state of XML parsing and writing in the Rust ecosystem. For a small side project we needed to read an XML file and turn its content into regular Rust structs. This blog post is a summary of what approaches we looked into, their tradeoffs and what we finally decided to use.

The first thing we did when researching this topic was to go to and search for "XML". The first result is the xml crate, but with only one v0.0.1 release and not a lot of downloads that didn't seem like a good candidate. Looking further there was also xml-rs with 4 million downloads total. That seemed more encouraging so we looked into it.

The README of xml-rs says that it was inspired by the "Java Streaming API for XML (StAX)" and that it contains a "pull parser". What does that mean? 🤔

Streaming XML Events

Generally, there are two different ways of parsing XML, and in Rust there are actually three, all of which we will try to explain in this post. The first one, and the one that all the others are built upon, is the event stream approach. In this case the parser looks at the XML file character by character and triggers events after certain things have been read. Let's look at a quick example:

<DocumentElement param="value">
         Some Text
     <SecondElement param2="something">
         Pre-Text <Inline>Inlined text</Inline> Post-text.

If we read this short XML file using xml-rs:

let parser = xml::reader::EventReader::new(file);
for event in parser {
    println!("{:?}", event.unwrap());

We are presented with the following stream of events:

StartDocument(1.0, UTF-8, None)
StartElement(DocumentElement, {"": "", "xml": "", "xmlns": ""}, [param -> value])
StartElement(FirstElement, {"": "", "xml": "", "xmlns": ""})
Characters(Some Text)
StartElement(SecondElement, {"": "", "xml": "", "xmlns": ""}, [param2 -> something])
StartElement(Inline, {"": "", "xml": "", "xmlns": ""})
Characters(Inlined text)

This approach of reading XML is quite low-level, since we would need to write a lot of code to continuously transform this stream of events into Rust structs. It does have its advantages though, because it allows us to read and parse files that are much larger than the available memory of our machine. Sometimes, when all you have is a 38GB XML file, this can be very much worth it.

While looking some more into streaming XML parsers for Rust, we noticed that there is also the quick-xml crate. As the name says, it is quick, and by quick we mean 10-50 times faster than xml-rs! 😱

For our particular use case speed is not that important and the files are usually only a couple of megabytes, but if we had to decide between xml-rs and quick-xml we certainly would use the latter in the future.

DOM parsing

"DOM" stands for "Document Object Model" and is the second parsing approach that we want to look at. As we mentioned before, this approach is based on the streaming events approach, and turns those events into a generic tree of XML elements.

In the Rust ecosystem, there appear to be two major crates for this: xmltree and minidom. The former is based on xml-rs, while minidom is based on quick-xml instead. That alone should already say enough about the speed differences between the two crates. In our tests minidom was significantly faster than xmltree, and we did not find any significant disadvantages over xmltree so let's focus on minidom for now.

We will use the same example XML file as above, but this time we will parse it using the minidom crate:

let root: minidom::Element = string.parse().unwrap();
println!("{:#?}", root);

These two lines of code will produce something roughly like this:

Element {
    prefix: None,
    name: "DocumentElement",
    namespaces: NamespaceSet(parent: None),
    attributes: {
        "param": "value",
    children: [
            name: "FirstElement",
            attributes: {},
            children: [Text("Some Text")],
            name: "SecondElement",
            attributes: { "param2": "something" },
            children: [
                    name: "Inline",
                    attributes: {},
                    children: [Text("Inlined text")],

The Element is a struct provided by the minidom crate and it easily allows us to read the name of the root element, or the content of the child elements. Ultimately, this is very similar to how the DOM in the browser works.

This approach does have one disadvantage though, it needs to read the whole file into memory to create this tree of elements. This means that it is not suited when parsing huge XML files that simply don't fit into the memory of your machine. But, most XML files are probably not dozens of gigabytes in size, so depending on your use case, this tradeoff might be worth the simplified code that it results in.


"Deserialization" is essentially just another word for "parsing", and if we are talking about deserializing data then there is one crate in the Rust ecosystem that can't be ignored: serde.

serde can be used with a variety of different serializers and deserializers and allows us to parse files directly into Rust structs.

For our particular use case there is a crate called serde-xml-rs, which integrates xml-rs with serde. But xml-rs is so slooooow! Luckily there is also an alternative that uses quick-xml, and it is... quick-xml itself. The quick-xml crate has an optional serialize feature which directly provides serde integration.

The code to use quick-xml with serde looks something roughly like this:

#[derive(Debug, Deserialize)]
struct Document {
    param: Option<String>,
    first_element: String,
    second_element: SecondElement,

let doc: Document = quick_xml::de::from_str(xml).unwrap();

First, we define a Document struct, and we declare that a Deserialize implementation should be derived for it using the derive feature of serde. Then we use the serde integration of quick-xml to deserialize our XML string to a Document instance.

This is nice, because it automatically can produce a parsing error when the <FirstElement> is missing inside the <DocumentElement>. But it has one small flaw, it does not differentiate between attributes on an element and the child elements of an element. If we were to serialize this struct back to XML it would actually turn the param into a <Param>value</Param> child element. 😥

Unfortunately, it looks like this is currently something that is hard to implement properly with serde itself. Due to this, there are a number of serde-like crates, specifically for the purpose of supporting XML. Some examples of this are strong-xml and yaserde. These crates allow you to put a specific attribute on the field in the struct (e.g. #[yaserde(attribute)]), which tells the serializer to write this as an element attribute, instead of a child node.

The primary advantage of this approach is that you can directly parse your data into structs that match the types of the data that your parsing, compared to the generic Element struct that you get when you parse it into a DOM structure. For example, you can specify foo: i32, and if the XML has a foo attribute that does not parse into a number you will get a parse error. If you are certain about the format of your data then this might be a good approach to use, but it does have the disadvantage of being less flexible in terms of partially broken data.

In our use case we needed to read a file with multiple records inside of it. We can't be sure that each record is valid, but if we hit an invalid record we would still like to be able to use the other records, so the structure we would like to have is something like this:

struct Document {
    records: Vec<Result<Record, Error>>

It seems that all the serde-like crates currently don't support this kind of error recovery, so if you need it then your best bet is probably to use the DOM parsing approach from above.


As you can see, all of these approaches have their advantages and disadvantages, and we can't recommend one over the other in general. We have come up with a rule of thumb though:

  • when you have huge XML files it's best to use the streaming event parser

  • when you are certain about the structure of the XML data and don't need any error recovery then use a serde-like crate

  • finally, for most other use cases you can use a crate like minidom to parse into generic Element structs

We hope that this short intro to XML parsing in Rust was helpful to you and if you have any questions do not hesitate to contact us. We're happy to help!

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